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174                                      FLOKA   INDICA,
differences of vegetation. In the great valleys the tropical
flora stretches far into the interior, and is much the same
there as in the outer portion of the mountains. In the ex-
terior Himalaya there is a well marked rainy season. The
width of the helt of the exterior or humid Himalaya is much
greater to the eastward than in the extreme west, the rain-fall
and humidity being much less to the westward. We there-
fore find the plants of the interior zone advancing much
nearer to the plains in the western Himalaya than they do in
the eastern, where a humid or rainy climate vegetation pene-
trates far into the interior. In the outer zone of the eastern
Himalaya, indeed, a vegetation characteristic of an equable
climate prevails tliroughout the year, while to the westward
those families which delight in humidity only make their ap-
pearance with the commencement of the rainy reason, before
which time no Zingiberacew, terrestrial orchids, especially
Malawidew, Cyrtandraceai, Acanthacete, or balsams, are to be
met with.
Considered with respect to its longitudinal extent, the Hi-
malaya, when regarded solely from a physical point of view,
consists of only two divisions, a western and an eastern, cor-
responding respectively to the Indus and Brahmaputra. For
botanical purposes, however, the chaux requires to be divided
into western, central, and eastern Himalaya. The kingdom
of Nipal, in the middle, constitutes the whole of the central
Himalaya. To the eastward lie Sikkim, Bhotati, and Abor,
to the westward Kumaon and the Panjab Himalaya,
We have thus three principal scries of divisions of the Hi-
malaya, according to length, breadth, and height. Accordingly
we sayŚ
1 (longitudinally). The eastern, central, and western Hi-
malaya.
% (latitudinylly)╗ The exterior, interior, and Tibetan Hima-
laya.
$ (altitndiHally). The tropical, temperate, ami alpiite Hi-
malaya,